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National Identity in Russia from 1961 : Traditions & Deterritorialisation






Suggestions for bibliographical entries relevant to the project are very welcome,

especially if accompanied by brief critical annotations.

If you have any such suggestions, please contact us at russian-nationalism@mod-langs.ox.ac.uk


Theoretical / Comparative

National Identity in Russia

a) General studies of national identity

b) Identification and identity documents

c) Cultural memory

d) Migrancy and multiculturalism

a) General works on Russian national identity

b) General works with some material of relevance to Russia  

c) National identity in other post-Soviet cultures

d) Russian nationalism: special topics 

(i) Cultural transmission

(ii) Etnos and related subjects

(iii) Travel, migrancy, multiculturalism  

(iv) Traditions and customs  

(v) Regional and Local Studies

(vi) Identification documents

(vii) The Russian far-right & Eurasianism


1. Theoretical / Comparative:


             a) General studies of national identity

Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1991).

Appadurai, Arjun, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).

Bhaba, Homi K. (ed.), Nation and Narration (New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall Inc., 1990).

_______, The Location of Culture (London: Routledge, 1994).

Chakrabarty, Dipesh, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

Dević, Anna, ed., Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Democracy (University of Bonn: European Integration Series, 2002/ 2).

_______, Guarding and Guiding Regionalism and Interculturalism: Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations in Vojvodina, Research Report (Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University:  New Approaches to Sustainable Democracy-Building, October 2003).

_______, Prospects of Multicultural Regionalism as a Democratic Barrier, (University of Bonn: Papers on Development Policy No. 57, December 2002).

_______, 'Ethnonationalism, Politics, and the Intellectuals: The Case of Yugoslavia
', International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1998.

_______, 'Re-Defining the Public-Private Boundary: Nationalism and Women’s Activism in Former Yugoslavia', Anthropology of East Europe Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1997.

Eriksen, T. H. (ed.), Globalization: Studies in Anthropology (London: Pluto, 2003).

Gellner, Ernest, Nations and Nationalism (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983).

_______, What is a Nation? (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983).

_______, Nationalism (London: Weidenfeld, 1997).

Hall, Stuart, The Multicultural Question (Milton Keynes : Pavis Centre for Social and Cultural Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2001).

_______, and Du Gay, Paul (eds.), Questions of Cultural Identity (London: Sage, 1996).

_______, and Sarat Maharaj (eds.), Modernity and Cultural Difference (London: Institute of International Visual Arts, 2001).

Hobsbawm, Eric, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

_______, Nationalism in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

_______, and Ranger, Terence, The Invention of Traditions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).

Holmes, Douglas R., Integral Europe: Fast-Capitalism, Multiculturalism, Neo-Fascism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

Lehti, Marko, Smith, David (eds.), Post-Cold War Identity Politics: Northern and Baltic Experiences (London: Frank Cass, 2003).

MacClancy, Jeremy (ed.), Exotic No More: Anthropology on the Front Lines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004).

Maynard, Mary & Purvis, June, New Frontiers in Women's Studies: Knowledge, Identity and Nationalism (London: Taylor & Francis, 1996)

Mudimbi, V. Y., Nations, Identities, Cultures (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997).

Ong, Aihwa, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999).

Petrini, Carlo, Slow Food: The Case for Taste (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).

Porter, Roy (ed.), Myths of the English (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Samuel, Ralph (ed.), Patriotism: The Making and Unmaking of British National Identity (London: Routledge, 1989).

Smith, Anthony D., Theories of Nationalism (London: Duckworth, 1971).

_______, Nationalism in the Twentieth Century (The Hague: Mouton, 1975).

_______, Nationalism in the Twentieth Century (Oxford: M. Robertson, 1979).

_______ (ed.), Ethnicity and Nationalism (Leiden: Brill, 1992).

_______, Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era (Cambridge: Polity, 1995).

_______, Nationalism and Modernism : a Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism (London: Routledge, 1998).

_______, The Nation in History : Historiographical Debates about Ethnicity and Nationalism (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000).

_______, Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001).

_______ (and John Hutchison, eds.), Nationalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

Spillman, Lynn, and Russell Faeges, ‘Nations’, in Julia Adams, Elisabeth S. Clemens, and Ann Shola Orloff (eds.), Remaking Modernity: Politics, History, and Sociology (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005), pp. 409-37.


                b) Identification and identity documents

Caplan, Jane, and Torpey, John (eds.), Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

Dardy, Claudine, Identités de papiers (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998).

Fraenkel, Béatrice, La Signature : génèse d’une signe (Paris : Gallimard, 1992).

Hartoy, Maurice d’, Histoire du passeport français (Paris: Champion, 1937).

Kertzer, David I., and Arel, Dominique, Census and Identity: the Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Language in National Censuses (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).


                c) Cultural memory

Assmann, Aleida, Erinnerungsraeume : Formen und Wandlungen des kulturellen Gedaechtnisses  (Muenchen: C.H. Beck, 1999). In this work the literary scholar and anthropologist Aleida Assman develops her concept of “kulturelles Gedaechtnis” (cultural memory). Most of the book centres on ancient sites and literature, but the last section 2, V, on “traumatic places” has relevant observations on the aura of memory sites that testify to a totalitarian past, while section 3 analyses the mnemonic function of contemporary art.  

Collini, Stefan, English Pasts: Essays in History and Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999)

Connerton, Paul, How Societies Remember (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). A short study of ‘social memory’, in which the author suggests that remembering the past and forming social identities is as much a product of habit and ritual as of historical narrative. Connerton’s study is divided into three chapters; the first elaborates the idea of ‘habit memory’, or an ability to reproduce a certain performance learned at some indistinct moment in the past; the second deals with the commemorative ceremonies that act as the bridge between historical narrative and unself-conscious habit; and the final chapter deals with memory as it is reproduced in bodily practices, such as hand gestures.

Gildea, Robert, The Past in French History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).

Frank, Michael C. and Gabriele Rippl, eds, Arbeit am Gedächtnis (München: Wilhelm Fink, 2007). Essay collection, including section on individual and collective memory, culture of memory, history and trauma, generation and memory, memory through literature and film. Many essays engage closely with the concept of “kulturelles Gedaechtnis” (cultural memory) as developed by the literary scholar and anthropologist Aleida Assman.

Misztal, Barbara A., Theories of Social Remembering (Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2003). A good overview of the sociological theories of remembering, which includes a useful typology of theories according to the degree of importance they attach to human agency. Misztal tracks the development of memory studies within the sociological discipline from Maurice Halbwachs whose socially-mediated conception of memory significantly influenced the field of study and informed the positions of scholars such as Amos Funkenstein and Andreas Huyssen, through to the more ‘democratic’ theories of remembering, which conceive memory as a process of ongoing negotiation rather than imposed social constructions, elaborated by scholars such as Barry Schwartz and Michael Schudson.

Nora, Pierre (ed.), Les Lieux de mémoire (Paris: Gallimard, 1984-1986).

Samuel, Raphael, Theatres of Memory (London: Verso, 1994-1997).

Wertsch, James V., Voices of Collective Remembering (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). Wertsch develops a ‘socio-cultural’ theory of remembering in which he draws on Bakhtin’s notion of dialogicality or multivoicedness to explain the mental processes involved in the creation of collective memory. Wertsch compares the mediated action of remembering to textual mediation, asserting that memory is not just an individual activity but a result of shared textual resources and cultural tools. Wertsch offers a handy glossary for negotiating the sociological literature on memory, which provides summaries of scholarly thought on the differences between individual and collective memory, collective memory and history, remembering and re-experiencing, and episodic and instrumental collective memory. 


                d) Migrancy and multiculturalism

Alibhai-Brown, Yasmin, After Multiculturalism (London: Foreign Policy Centre, 2000).

_______, Who Do We Think We Are? Imagining the New Britain (London: Penguin, 2001).

Breckenridge, Carol A., Bhabha, Homi K., and Pollock, Sheldon I., Cosmopolitanism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2002).

Cairns, Stephen (ed.), Drifting: Architecture and Migrancy (London: Routledge, 2003).

Chambers, Iain, Migrancy, Culture, Identity (London: Routledge, 1994).

Cheah, P., Robbins, B. (eds.), Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998).

Chiellino, Carmine (ed.), Interkulturelle Literatur in Deutschland: Ein Handbuch (Stuttgart: J. P. Metzler, 2000).

Harney, N. (2007) “Transnationalism and entrepreneurial migrancy in Naples, Italy”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(2): 219-232.
_______, (2006) “Rumour, migrants in the informal economies of Naples, Italy”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 26 (9-10):  374-384.
_______, (2006) “Precarious migrant knowledge workers: new entrepreneurial identities in Naples, Italy”, International Journal of Manpower, 27 (6): 572-587.

_______, (2006) “The politics of urban space: Modes of place-making by Italians in Toronto's neighbourhoods”, Modern Italy, 11 (1): 27-44.

_______, (2006) “Alternative economies, migration and the Real in the Italian nation space”, Mobilities, 1(3): 373-390.
_______, (2006) “Shadow Work (focus on Ivan Illich)”, G. Ritzer (Ed.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Malden, MA. Vol. X, pp. 4294-5.

Heartney, Eleanor, Critical Condition: American Culture at the Crossroads (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

Heitmeyer, Wilhelm, Dollase, Rainer, and Backes, Otto, Die Krise der Städte: Analyse zu den Folgen desintegrativer Stadtentwicklung für das ethnisch-kulturelle Zusammenleben (Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkampf, 1998).

Hollinger, David A., Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism (New York: Basic Books, 2000).

Lippard, Lucy, The Lure of the Local: Sense of Place in a Multi-Centred Society (London: I. B. Tauris, 1998).

Noiriel, Gérard, The French Melting Pot: Immigration, Citizenship, and National Identity. Trans. G. de Laforcade (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).

Oguibe, Olu, The Culture Game (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003).

O’Neill, Michael, and Dennis Austin, Democracy and Cultural Diversity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Schlesinger, Arthur, The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998).

Seyhan, Azade, Writing Outside the Nation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

Walzer, Michael, On Toleration (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997).



2. National identity in Russia:


                a) General works on Russian national identity

Bassin, Mark, Imperial Visions : Nationalist Imagination and Geographic Expansion in the Russian Far East, 1840-1865 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Brandenberger, David, National Bolshevism: Stalinist Mass Culture and the Formation of Modern Russian National Identity, 1931-1956 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002).

Brudny, Yitzhak M., Reinventing Russia : Russian Nationalism and the Soviet State, 1953-1991 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).

Chulos, Chris, and Remy, Johannes (eds.), Imperial and National Identities in Pre-Revolutionary, Soviet, and Post-Soviet Russia (Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 1999).

Dunlop, John B, The Faces of Contemporary Russian Nationalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).

_______, The New Russian Nationalism (New York: Praeger, 1985).

_______, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).

Gudkov, L. Negativnaya identichnost’ (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2004). A study of modern Russian public opinion based on the questionnaires circulated by the All-Russian Society for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM), with particular attention to topics such as attitudes to national minorities, views of Russianness, etc. Gudkov’s treatment is highly critical; he sees post-Soviet Russian mentality as manifesting ‘negative identity’ (i.e. aggression, insecurity etc. – the term is taken from the psychoanalyst Erik H. Eriksen’s Life History and the Historical Moment (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1975). Thus, polls reflecting Russians’ belief that qualities such as hospitality, generosity, etc. are national characteristics are contrasted with evidence of self-interested behaviour and of xenophobic attitudes to national minorities.

Gunnar, Sven, Pains of Partition: Nationalism, National Identity, and the Military in Post-Soviet Russia (Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, c2002).

Hirsch, Francine, Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making Of the Soviet Union (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005).

Hosking, Geoffrey, Russia: People and Empire (London: Harper Collins, 1997).

_______, Rulers and Victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006).

Kappeler, Andreas, Regionalismus und Nationalismus in Russland (Nomos, 1996).

Laruelle, Marlène, Russian Eurasianism: An Ideology of Empire (Baltimore: The John Hopkins UP, 2008).

_______, Russia’s Central Asia Policy and the Role of Russian Nationalism (Silk Road Paper 2008), (Washington DC: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, 2008)

_______, (2008) ‘Alternative Identity, Alternative Religion? Neo-Paganism and the Aryan Myth in Contemporary Russia’, Nations and Nationalism, 14(2): 283-301.

 _______, ‘“The White Tsar”: Romantic Imperialism in Russia’s Legitimizing of Conquering the Far East’, Acta Slavica Iaponica, 25: 113-34.

Oswald, Ingrid. Die Nachfahren des "homo sovieticus" : ethnische Orientierung nach dem Zerfall der Sowjetunion (Muenster ; New York: Waxmann, 2000). A systematic study of ethnicity, moving from Soviet to post-Soviet space. Includes an overview of Soviet “policy of ethnicity”, definitions of “discourse”, “identity”, “culture” and case studies of  Soviet people, young people and people who emigrated to the West. Interview transcripts published at the back of the volume.

Oswald, Ingrid, Eckhard Dittrich and Viktor Voronkov, eds, Wandel alltaeglicher Lebensfuehrung in Russland : Besichtigungen des ersten Transformationsjahrzehnts in (St. Petersburg, Muenster, London: Lit, [2002]). Essay collection presenting a look at Russian everyday life after the first decade of reforms, focusing on family life, social networks and work life. Includes interviews.  

Petersson, Bo, National Self-Images and Regional Identities in Russia (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001).

Rossiiskii mentalitet: voprosy psikhologicheskoi teorii i praktiki (Moscow, 1997).

‘“Russkii factor” v natsional’noi politike’, NG-Stsenarii 14 June 2001.

Sikevich, Z. B., Natsional’noe samosoznanie russkikh: sotsiologicheskii ocherk (Moscow, 1996).

Suny, Ronald Gregor, and Martin, Terry (eds.), A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Tolz, Vera, Russia (London: Arnold, 2000).

Troitsky, Evgeny (ed.), Russkaya molodezh’: Demograficheskaya situatsiya. Migratsii (Moscow: Granitsa, 2004). A compilation of texts of nationalist significance, including a guide for the patriotic Russian (‘Pamyatka russkomu cheloveku’), accompanied by assertions that the better part of Russian young people are patriotic, and attacks on Western-sponsored programmes as ‘open propaganda against institutions of national sovereignty and the traditions of our country’ (p. 24). Published by the Association for Combined Study of the Russian Nation in Moscow.


Verdery, Katherine, ‘Nationalism and National Sentiment in Post-Soviet Russia’, Slavic Review 52:2 (1993), 179-203. Derives the current upsurge in nationalism from Soviet nationalism, but does not provide that many details.

Wöll, Alexander and Wydra, Harald (eds.), Democracy and Myth in Russia and Eastern Europe (London: Routledge, 2007).

Yanov, Aleksandr, Rossiia protiv Rossii : ocherki istorii russkogo natsionalizma 1825-1921 (Novosibirsk: Sibirskii khronograf, 1999).

_______, Patriotizm i natsionalizm v Rossii: 1825-1921 (Moscow: Akademkniga, 2002).

Zorin, Andrei, Kormya dvuglavogo orla: literatura i gosudarstvennaia ideologiia v Rossii v poslednei treti XVIII-pervoi treti XIX veka (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2001).


                 b) General works with some material of relevance to Russia

Booth, Stephenie, and Tolz, Vera, Nation and Gender in Contemporary Europe (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005).

Bracewell, Wendy, Dragadze, Tamara, and Smith, Anthony (eds.), Pre-Modern and Modern National Identity in Russia and Eastern Europe (Yverdon: Gordon and Breach, 1993).

Brubaker, Rogers K. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996) . See esp. ch. 2, which includes a discussion of how the Soviet Union, while suppressing nationalism, ‘went further than any other state before or since in institutionalizing territorial nationhood and ethnic nationality’ through the use of nationhood as an ‘obligatory assigned status’ (pp. 17-18).

________, Ethnicity Without Groups (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004). Refers in passing to Russia. Includes some discussion of how ‘successor state Russians’ have been ‘neither the objects nor the perpetrators of nationalist violence’ (p. 151). P. 53 distinguishes  between ‘identification’ (as in the assigned nationality of the passport) and ‘identity’ (a category to which Brubaker in any case prefers the terms ‘identification and categorization’, ‘self-understanding’ and ‘social location’, as well as ‘communality, connectedness, groupness’ (p. 46).

Greenfield, Liah, Nationalism: Five Routes to Modernity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992).

Prezel, Ilya, National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia, and Ukraine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Szporluk, Roman (ed.), National Identity and Ethnicity in Russia and the New States of Eurasia (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994).


                c) National identity in other post-Soviet cultures

Abashin, Sergei, ‘Ethnicity Concepts and Economic Strategies in The Central Asian Community’, online working paper (December 1999), http://www.indepsocres.spb.ru/sbornik8/8e_abash.htm.

_______, ‘The Transformation of Ethnic Identity in Central Asia: a Case Study of the Uzbeks and Tajiks’, The International Institute of Strategic Studies, http://www.iiss.org/publications/russian-regional-perspectives-journal/volume-1---issue-2/transformation-of-ethnic-identity-in-cenasia.

Abrahamian, Levon, ‘Mother Tongue: Linguistic Nationalism and the Cult of Translation in Post-Communist Armenia’, Berkeley Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies Working Paper Series (University of California at Berkeley, 1998), also available at http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~bsp/publications/1998_01-abra.pdf.

_______, Armenian Identity in a Changing World (Mazda Publishers, 2006).

Allworth, E., Bohr, A., Law, V., Smith, G., Wilson, A., Nation-Building in the Post-Soviet Borderlands (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Humphrey, Caroline, Marx Went Away – But Karl Stayed Behind (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998).

Laruelle, Marlène, (2008) ‘The Concept of Ethnogenesis in Central Asia: Political Context and Institutional Mediators (1940-50)’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 9(1): 169-88.

_______, (2007) ‘The Return of the Aryan Myth: Tajikistan in Search of a Secularized National Ideology, Nationalities Papers, 35(1): 51-70.

Prausakus, Alkas, ‘Ethnic Identity, Historical Memory, and Nationalism in Post-Soviet States’, Center for Studies of Social Change, http://www.ciaonet.org/wps/pra01/.

Rausing, Sigrid, History, Memory, and Identity in Estonia: The End of a Collective Farm (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).  

Turkmenbashi, Saparmurat [Türkmenbaşy, Saparmyrat]: Рухнама [The Ruhnama; Turkm., The book of the spirit], Aşgabat: Turkmenskaia Gosudarstvennaia izdatel’skaia sluzhba, 2002. Spiritual, national, and political guidelines laid down by the late President-for-Life of Turkmenistan. Includes a colour photograph of the author and a foldout chart showing the genealogy of the Seljuq royal family.


                d) Russian nationalism: special topics 

(i) Cultural transmission

Beumers, Birgit, ‘The Mikhalkov Brothers’ View of Russia’, Russian and Soviet Film Adaptations of Literature, 1900-2001: Screening the Word, ed. Stephen Hutchings and Anat Vernitski, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005. pp. 135-52.

_______,  ‘The eccentric peculiarities of Russian national cinematography in the case of Alexander Rogozhkin’, forthcoming in a volume on humour in post-Soviet culture, edited by Seth Graham and Olga Mesropova, Slavica Publishers.

Bogdanov, Konstantin A., O krokodilakh v Rossii: Ocherki iz istorii zaimstvovanii i ekzotizmov (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2006). A discussion of the resonance of foreign phenomena, commodities, and linguistic terms (especially rhetorical terms) in Russia, particularly in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (though the title essay, for example, ranges from the medieval period to the present day). It emphasizes the fluctuating status at different periods of these ‘exotic’ and ‘foreign’ entities – so at some periods the crocodile has been seen as a predatory outsider, at others absorbed into native fauna (cf. recent attempts by nationalists to prove that krokodil is a Russian word, and that the creature itself is at home in Northern Russian rivers).


        (ii) Etnos and related subjects

    1. Political tracts and sites:

Troitsky, Evgeny (ed.), Russkaya molodezh’: Demograficheskaya situatsiya. Migratsii (Moscow: Granitsa, 2004). Produced by the Assotsiatsiya po kompleksnomu izucheniyu russkoi natsii (AKIRN), a self-styled research unit in Moscow that takes part in conferences organized by the Orthodox Church. This is a compilation of uplifting patriotic texts by famous writers of the past, from Vladimir Monomakh onwards, AKIRN’s own materials such as a ‘Memo to the Russian Person’, counselling moderate drinking, leading a healthy life, ‘preserving your Russian honour’, and aiding ‘Russians, Slavs, and friends of the Fatherland’, anti-foreign statements by prominent Russians of the present day, e.g. the film director Nikita Mikhalkov, etc. It claims today’s youth is thirsting for patriotism and needs to be shown the right direction.


    2. Academic studies:

Abashin, S. N., ‘Postsovetskii natsionalizm, teoriya etnosa i konstruktivistskaya kritika’, Etnologicheskoe obozrenie 1 (2005), 83-6.

Boronoev, A. O., Pavlenko V. N., Etnicheskaya psikhologiya (St Petersburg, 1994).

Frolov, Nikolai, Rossiiskaya mental’nost’: mify i realii: opyt izbavleniya ot illyuzii (Kazan’: Kniga pamyati, 2005).

Kalinsky, I. P., Russkii narod. Polnaya illyustrirovannaya entsiklopediya (Moscow: Eksmo, 2005).

Kozlov, V. I., Etnos, natsiya, nationalizm (Moscow: Staryi sad, 1999).  A defence of established Soviet definitions of etnos against what the writer sees as the ‘nihilistic’ and ‘relativistic’ attempts to attack this concept, especially by Valery Tishkov (see below). He himself defines his purpose as ‘demonstrating etnos to be a community of people that has come together by natural and historical routes and which to this day occupies a prominent place among other communities of people with which it interacts in one or another way’ (p. 21). Lenin’s theories of national identity were sound, although unduly coloured by politics in terms of the emphasis given to the class principle (p. 39). P. 42 ff. trace the history of etnos in the late Soviet period, seeing the Twenty-Second Party Congress as a watershed. Kozlov attacks the theories of ethnic identity set out by S. Shirokogoroff in 1923, and by Lev Gumilev, which he sees as unduly biologistic, and is also highly critical of the writings of Yulian Bromlei, which he sees as ‘chaotic’ and confusing (pp. 51-2). On the other hand, the book makes clear that he does accept the objectively verifiable existence of etnos as a meaningful category of social classification.

Krys’ko, V. G., Etnicheskaya psikhologiya (Moscow: Akademiya, 2004).

Lebedeva N. M., Vvedenie v etnicheskuyu i kross-kul’turnuyu psikhologiyu (Moscow: Klyuch, 1998).

Stefanenko, T. G., Etnopsikhologiya (Moscow: Institut psikhologii RAN, 1999).

Zaliznyak, Anna A., Levontina, I. B., Shmelev, A. D. Klyuchevye idei russkoi yazykovoi kartiny mira (Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoi kul’tury, 2005).


        (iii) Travel, migrancy, multiculturalism

Gitelman, Zvi, Glants, Musya, Goldman, Marshall I., Jewish Life after the USSR (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003).

Melvin, Neil J., Russians Beyond Russia: The Politics of National Identity (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1995).

Pilkington, Hilary, Migration, Displacement and Identity in Post-Soviet Russia (London: Routledge, 1998). An empirical, but theoretically grounded, study of migrancy (i.e. the influx of ‘refugees’ and ‘forced migrants’ into the Russian Federation during the late 1990s). It begins with a discussion of theoretical issues and of the terminology of national identity (including the rise of the term ‘compatriots’ as a denomination), and of debates on migrant ‘problems’ at the level of government and the press. There is also a discussion of institutional regulation, e.g. via the propiska (pp. 40-44). The second part of the book handles migrant experience, distinguishing between cities (such as Moscow, St Petersburg, and Krasnodar) where restrictive policies are applied to incomers, and the relatively laissez-faire policies in Orel and Ul’yanovsk. The book concludes with a discussion of evidence from interviews with migrants, pointing to a widespread tendency to regard these as outsiders (e.g. to refer to ethnic Russian incomers from Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan as ‘Kazakhs’ and ‘Kyrgyz’).

Malakhov, V. S., Tishkov, V. A., Mul’tikul’turalizm i transformatsiya postsovetskikh obshchestv (Moscow: Institut etnologii i antropologii RAN, 2002).


        (iv) Traditions and customs

    1. Party statements, manuals and pamphlets for cultural workers, journalism:

Benkliev, S. N., Sovetskomu bytu – novye obryady (Voronezh: Kommuna, 1971).

Bogatkova, L., Vechera i prazdniki molodezhi (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1962).

Borodkin, L., Sila velikikh traditsii (Moscow: Politicheskaya literatura, 1963).

Borzenko, A., Dva prazdnika (Moscow: Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1961).

Brudnyi, V. I., Obryady vchera i segodnya (Leningrad: Nauka, 1968).

_______, Sovetskaya obryadnost’ i ateisticheskoe vospitanie (Moscow: Znanie, 1985).

_______, Bor’ba za novyi obshchestvennyi byt i rozhdenie sovetskoi bezreligioznoi obryadnosti (Moscow: Tsentral’nyi Dom nauchnogo ateizma, 1988).

‘Den’ rozhdeniya doyarki’, Kul’turno-prosvetitel’skaya rabota 6 (1963), 4. Dvenadtsatyi plenum Vsesoyuznogo tsentral’nogo soveta professional’nykh soyuzov 22-28 iyunya 1963. Stenograficheskii otchet (Moscow, 1963), pp. 4-38.

El’chenko, Yu. N., Novomu cheloveku – novye obryady (Moscow: Politicheskaya literatura, 1976).

Fursin, I. I., Obryadnost’ i ee mesto v sotsialisticheskom obraze zhizni (Moscow: Znanie, 1977).

Gerodnik, G. I., Dorogami novykh traditsii (Moscow: Politicheskaya literatura, 1964).

Gizatullin, B., ‘Prazdnik russkoi kul’tury’ [in the Tatar Republic], Kul’turno-prosvetitel’skaya rabota 4 (1962), 20-22.

Kampars, P. P., Zalsovich, N. M., Sovetskaya grazhdanskaya obryadnost’ (Moscow: Mysl’, 1967).

Khalampisky, Yury, ‘Nash, istinno russkii’ (on the painter Arkady Plastov), Kul’turno-prosvetitel’skaya rabota 8 (1966), 15-16.

Kikilo, I., Novoe vremya – novye traditsii (Moscow: Politicheskaya literatura, 1969).

Klimov, E., Novye obychai i prazdniki (Perm’: Profizdat, 1964).

_______, Prazdnik prishel v tvoi dom (Perm’: Permskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo, 1965).

Kurantov, A. P., Sovremennaya narodnye prazdniki i obychai (Moscow: Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1961).

Lisavtsev, E., Novye sovetskie traditsii (Moscow: Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1966).

Mikhailov, V., ‘Vremya, obychai, traditsii’, Kommunist Tatarii 6 (1964), 54-6. ‘Novogodnoe shchedrovanie’, Kul’turno-prosvetitel’skaya rabota 11 (1964), 11-15. ‘Novye obryady – v byt’, Kul’turno-prosvetitel’skaya rabota 7 (1964), 1-2. ‘Ob ocherednykh zadachakh ideologicheskoi raboty partii’, Pravda 22 June 1963.

Plyushch, A., ‘Razgovor o traditsiyakh’, Izvestiya 15 January 1959, p. 3; see also Tatiana Tess, ‘Rozhdenie novykh traditsii’, Izvestiya 30 April 1959, p. 2 ; A. Usakovsky (master avtozavoda im. Likhacheva), ‘Nuzhny li sovetskie obryady?’, Izvestiya 4 October 1959, p. 6; and the replies to Usakovsky: V. Rusanov (Odessa), ‘Da, sovetskie obryady nuzhny!’, Izvestiya 11 October 1959, p. 6; M. Gorinov (Orshinsky dom kul’tury Kalininskoi oblasti), ‘Da, nuzhny sovetskie obryady’, Izvestiya 19 October 1959; ‘Dobrye traditsii tvoryat narod’, Izvestiya 26 November 1959 (a selection of readers’ letters on the same subject); ‘Byt’ ili ne byt’ sovetskim obryadam ? Spor prodolzhaetsya’, Izvestiya 5 December 1959, p. 2.

Vozyakov, I. S., Ot vsei dushi : pozhelaniya imeninnikam (Bryansk: izd. I. S. Vozyanova, 1997).

‘Zadachi partii v oblasti natsional’nykh otnoshenii’, ‘Proekt Programmy Kommunisticheskoi partiii Sovetskogo Soyuza’, Partiinaya zhizn’ 15-16 (1961), 64-6.

Zolotukhin, E., ‘Chelovek rodilsya’, Kul’turno-prosvetitel’skaya zhizn’ 10 (1963), 17-20.


    2. Secondary studies:

Apazhaeva, S. S., Traditsiya v rossiiskom sotsiume (2003).

Baiburin, A. K., Zhilishche v obryadakh i predstavleniyakh vostochnykh slavyan (Leningrad: Nauka, 1983; reprinted Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoi kul’ture, 2005).

_______, Ritual v traditsionnoi kul’ture (Leningrad: Nauka, 1993).

Conte, Francis, L’Héritage païen de la Russie (Paris: Albin Michel, 1997).

Glebkin, Vladimir, Ritual v sovetskoi kul’ture (Moscow: Yanus-K, 1998).

Gromyko, M. M., Traditsionnye normy povedeniya i formy obshcheniya russkikh krest’yan XIX v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1986).

Mir russkoi derevni (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1991).

Ivleva, L. M., ed. V. D. Ken, Predstavleniya vostochnykh slavyan o nechistoi sile i kontaktakh s nei. Materialy polevoi i arkhivnoi kollektsii L. M. Ivlevoi (St Petersburg: Peterburgskoe vostokovedenie, 2004).

Jenks, Andrew, Russia in a Box: Art and Identity in an Age of Revolution (De Kalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2005).

Kalacheva, O. V., ‘Den’ rozhdeniya: prazdnichnoe ustroistvo i osnovnye znacheniya’, in A. K. Baiburin, S. L. Pechersky, N. B. Vakhtin, V. V. Lapin, and O. V. Kharkhordin (eds.), Problemy sotsial’nogo i gumanitarnogo znaniya vol. 2 (St Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin, 2000), 399-422.

Kasavin, I. T., Traditsiya v strukture poznavatel’nogo protsessa (1989).

Keller, Elena E., Prazdnichnaya kul’tura Peterburga (St Petersburg: V. A. Mikhailov, 2001).

Lane, Christel, The Rites of Rulers: Ritual in Industrial Society: The Soviet Case (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Mikhailov, S. A., Narodnye prazdniki na Rusi (Moscow: Tsentropoligraf, 2004).

Oinas, Felix, Folklore, Nationalism, and Politics (Columbus, Ohio: Slavica, 1978).

Olson, Laura, Performing Russia: Folk Revival and Russian Identity (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004).

Orlov, Oleg L., Prazdnichnaya kul’tura Rossii (St Petersburg: Kul’tinformpress, 2001).

Pesmen, Dale E., Russia and Soul (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000).

Petrova, Natal’ya G., “Vekov azartnaya igra”: Novyi god, novyi vek… byt, traditsii (Moscow: Russkoe slovo, 2000).

Ries, Nancy, Russian Talk: Culture and Conversation During Perestroika (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997).

Traditsii’, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya edn. 2, vol. 43 (1956), pp. 90-1. Distinguishes between ‘progressive’ traditions - 'for example, patriotic traditions, laid down during the struggle of peoples for their freedom, independence, and national sovereignty, national-cultural traditions, connected with folk celebrations, song, music, and poetry competitions, sports competitions, games, family customs and so on’ – and ‘reactionary, conservative traditions’, for instance, those ‘connected with survivals of tribal and feudal social relations, everyday traditions reflecting the oppression of women in the family and in society etc.’ Other meanings registered include customary law, parliamentary tradition, oral communication, and the specific meaning in civil law signifying transfer of goods by purchase, gift, or posting.


        (v) Regional and Local Studies

    1. General:

Conte, F. (ed.), Les études régionales en Russie (1890-1990): Origines, crise, renaissance. Cahiers du monde russe 6 (2002).

Klemesheva, A. P. (ed.) Kaliningradskii sotsium v evropeiskom kontekste (Kaliningrad: Izd. Kalingradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2002).

Krotova, M. L., Babykinskii dnevnik (Moscow: Geo, 1998).

Nefedova, Tat’yana G., Sel’skaya Rossiya na pereput’e: geograficheskie ocherki (Moscow: Novoe izdatel’stvo, 2003).

Rumer-Zaraev, Mikhail, ‘Anno Domini: Leto Gospodne: Yaroslavskii dnevnik’, Druzhba narodov 1 (2006), 136-68. The writer compares his experiences of the Yaroslavl’ countryside in 1956, the late 1980s, and 2005, recording, in the recent past, the near-extinction of intensive agriculture (attempts to reintroduce clover-growing have been unsuccessful), falling population numbers, and collapsing infrastructure (transport connections are only maintained if dacha-owners move in).

Yastrebinskaya. G. .A. Taezhnaya derevnya Kobelevo: Istoriya sovetskoi derevni v golosakh krest’yan, 1992-2002 (Moscow: “Pamyatniki istoricheskoi mysli”, 2005). 


    2. Studies of North-Western Russia and St Petersburg:

Peterburzhets: natsional’nye aspekty massovogo soznaniya (St Petersburg, 1995).


         (vi) Identification documents

    1. Manuals, collections of legislation:

Khobotov, A. N. and Zheludkova, T. I., Iz istorii stanovleniya i razvitiya pasportnoi sistemy v SSSR (Moscow: Akademiya MID SSSR, 1990).


    2. Academic studies:

Garcelon, Marc, ‘Colonizing the Subject : The Genealogy and Legacy of the Soviet Internal Passport’, in Caplan and Torpey (eds.), Documenting Individual Identity.

Lyubarsky, Kronid, ‘Pasportnaya sistema i sistema propiski v Rossii’, Rossiiskii byulleten’ po pravam cheloveka 2 (1994), 14-26.

Matthews, Mervyn, The Passport Society: Controlling Movement in Russia and the USSR (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993).

Petro, Nikolai N. Crafting Democracy: How Novgorod has Coped with Rapid Social Change (Cornell University Press, 2004). Primarily about the political impact of cultural memory in modern Novgorod, with extensive comparisons to Pskov. Further details available at www.npetro.net.

Shelley, Louise I., Policing Soviet Society: The Evolution of State Control (New York: Routledge, 1996).

Steinwedel, Charles, ‘Making Social Groups, One Person at a Time : The Identification of Individuals by Estate, Religious Confession, and Ethnicity in Late Imperial Russia’, in Caplan and Torpey (eds.), Documenting Individual Identity.


        (vii) The Russian far-right & Eurasianism

 2. Primary materials:

Bobrov, Aleksandr (compiler): Водолейзнак России. Поверья. Прозрения. Пророчества [Aquarius is Russias sign. Beliefs. Insights. Prophecies], Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 1992. Anthology of predominantly mystical-national writings and excerpts from various periods.

Bondarenko, Vladimir: Реальная литература. 20 лучших писателей России [Actual literature. Russia’s 20 best writers], Moscow: Paleia, 1996. Essays in which the author, a noted patriotic critic, gives his impressions on the writers whose work he most admires.

Bushin, Vladimir: Победители и лжецы [Victors and liars], Moscow: Paleia, 1995. Defence of Stalin’s role in winning the Second World War.

Dugin, Aleksandr: Абсолютная родина [Absolute motherland], Moscow: Arktogeia-tsentr, 1999. Attempt to synthesize various ideological traditions (Eurasianism, the Traditionalism of René Guénon, ideas derived from Julius Evola, geopolitics, aspects of fascist ideology) into a new Russian patriotism.

_______, Евразийская миссия Нурсултана Назарбаева [The Eurasian mission of Nursultan Nazarbaev], Moscow: Evraziia, 2004. The neo-Eurasian philosopher associates himself with Nursultan Nazarbaev, President of Kazakhstan, who has employed the term ‘Eurasia’ on numerous occasions.

_______, Конспирология. Наука о заговорах, секретных обществах и тайной войне [Conspirology. The science of conspiracies, secret societies, and occult warfare], Moscow: Evraziia, 2005. Appreciation of various conspiracy theories and occult beliefs, including long-established themes (freemasons, vampires) and more recent versions, with some commentary on current events.

_______, Поп-культура и знаки времени [Pop culture and the signs of the times], St Petersburg: Amfora, 2005. Essays on popular culture from a ‘Traditionalist’ and neo-Eurasian perspective. Includes a section on postmodernism.

_______, Философия войны [The philosophy of war], Moscow: Iauza, 2004. Dugin’s thoughts on military questions, including chapters on ‘the rebirth of the kshatriya’ (the Hindu military caste) and ‘a Eurasian security system as a geopolitical imperative’.

Dzhemal’, Geidar: Революция пророков [The revolution of the prophets], Moscow: Ul’tra.Kul’tura, 2003. Islamist critique of the current world order, influenced by Traditionalism and neo-Eurasianism.

_______, Стихотворения. Окно в ночь [Poems. A window on the night], Ekaterinburg: Ul’tra.Kul’tura, 2004. Collection of poems from various periods, some dealing with political and national themes.

Gumilev, Lev: От Руси к России. Очерки этнической истории [From Rusto Russia. Sketches of ethnic history], Moscow: Ekopros, 1992. An account of the emergence of the Russian nation in the light of Gumilev’s theories, influenced by Eurasianism.

_______, Ритмы Евразии. Эпохи и цивилизации [Rhythms of Eurasia. Epochs and civilizations], Moscow: Ekopros, 1993. Studies of various aspects of the history of inner Asia, expressing Gumilev’s belief in his own reading of Eurasianism.

Isaev, Igor’: Politica hermetica. Скрытые аспекты власти [Politica hermetica. Occult aspects of power], Moscow: Iurist”, 2003. Deals with the ‘metaphysics’ of political power, including sections on Plato, Ortega y Gasset, the Grail myth, Lombroso, Ernst Junger, and others.

Исход к востоку [Exodus to the east], Moscow: Dobrosvet, 1997. One of the original Eurasian essay collections, first published in 1921 in the emigration.

Kara-Murza, Sergei: Евроцентризмэдипов комплекс интеллигенции [Eurocentrism, the Oedipus complex of the intelligentsia], Moscow: Altoritm / Eksmo, 2002. Eurasian-influenced criticism of the desire to imitate Western Europe.

_______, Истмат и проблема востокзапад [Historical materialism and the question of east and west], Moscow: Algoritm, 2001. Argues that Soviet Marxism failed to appreciate the fundamental differences between different ‘civilizations’, and thus did not appreciate that the USSR was unlike the ‘modernist’ West.

_______, Манипуляция сознанием. Учебное пособие [Manipulation of consciousness. A textbook], Moscow: Algoritm, 2004. Exposition of how viewers’ and readers’ minds are warped by the liberal media, with suggestions on how to counter it. The author is a major contributor to the website Интернет против телеэкрана [Internet against television], <http://www.contr-tv.ru>.

Kim Chen Ir [Kim Jong Il]: Социализмэто наука [Socialism is a science], Moscow: Paleia, 1995. Unsigned Russian translation of a theoretical pamphlet by the North Korean leader.

Koshanov, A. K., and Nysanbaev, A. N. (eds): Идеи и реальность евразийства. Материалы Валихановских чтений «Исторические корни и перспективы евразийства как социокультурного и социополитического феномена» (11 декабря 1998г., г. Астана) [The ideas and reality of Eurasianism. Materials of the Valikhanov conference on ‘The historical roots and the perspectives of Eurasianism and a socio-cultural and socio-political phenomenon’ (11 December 1998, Astana)], Almaty: Daik-Press, 1999. The official Kazakhstani interpretation of Eurasianism.

Kosolapov, Richard (ed): Слово товарищу Сталину [Comrade Stalin has the floor], Moscow: Eksmo / Algoritm, 2002. Selection from Stalin’s writings and speeches, edited and introduced by one of his present-day admirers.

Kurashvili, Boris: Новый социализм. К возрождению после катастрофы [New socialism. Towards a rebirth after the catastrophe], Moscow: Bylina, 1997. Argues for a version of socialism that would allow market forces.

Kutsyllo, Veronika: Записки из Белого дома. 21 сентября — 4 октября 1993г. [Notes from the White House. 21 September — 4 October 1993], Moscow: Kommersant”, 1993. Eyewitness account of the siege of the parliament building in 1993, written by a parliamentary correspondent. Includes numerous black-and-white photographs.

Ligachev, Egor: Загадка Горбачева [The riddle of Gorbachev], Novosibirsk: Interbuk, 1992. Reminiscences by Mikhail Gorbachev’s one-time ally and subsequent opponent.

Limonov, Eduard (pseud. of Savenko, Eduard): Как мы строили будущее России [How we built Russia’s future], Moscow: Presskom, 2004. The author, who is the leader of the National Bolshevik Party, recounts the history of Limonka, the party periodical.

_______, Лимонов против Жириновского [Limonov contra Zhirinovsky], Moscow: Konets veka, 1994. Limonov’s side of the story concerning his break with Vladimir Zhirinovsky, whom he accuses of being secretly Jewish and of embarrassing himself at a meeting the author had arranged with Jean-Marie Le Pen.

Marr, Nikolai: Яфетидология [Japhethitology], Moscow: Kuchkovo pole, 2002. Excerpts from the works of the writer whose pseudo-scientific ‘Japhethitic theory’ and ‘new teaching on language’ dominated Soviet linguistics in the 1930s and 1940s.

Medvedev, Vladimir, Khomiakov, Vladimir, and Belokur, Valerii: Национальная идея или Чего ожидает Бог от России [The national idea, or What does God want from Russia], Moscow: Sovremennye tetradi, 2005. Calls for a perpetuation and renewal of the Russian imperial tradition.

Novikova, Lidiia and Sizemskaia, Irina (eds): Мир РоссииЕвразия. Антология [Russia’s world is Eurasia. An anthology], Moscow: Vysshaia shkola, 1995. Collection of Eurasian essays from the émigré period. Includes some material from the time of the Eurasian split in the late 1920s, and also some contemporary criticisms of Eurasianism.

_______, Россия между Европой и Азией. Евразийский соблазн [Russia between Europe and Asia. The Eurasian temptation], Moscow: Nauka, 1993. Anthology of Eurasian writings from the 1920s.

Prokhanov, Aleksandr: Африканист [The Africa specialist], Moscow: Armada-press, 2002. Reworking of a novel set in Angola at the time of the war against Jonas Savimbi’s UNITA movement.

_______, Господин Гексоген [Mr Semtex], Moscow: Ad Marginem, 2002. Novel set at the time of Vladimir Putin’s accession to power, incorporating a number of widely-rehearsed conspiracy theories surrounding his rapid rise. Awarded the ‘National bestseller’ literary prize. Prokhanov’s most successful novel to date.

_______, Дворец [The palace], St Petersburg: Amfora, 2002. Novel of 1994 dealing with the early phase of the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, concentrating on the removal of Hafizullah Amin from power and the installation of Babrak Karmal.

_______, Красно-коричневый [The red-brown], St Petersburg: Amfora, 2003. Fictionalized treatment of the political crisis of autumn 1993.

_______, Крейсерова соната [The cruiser sonata], Moscow: Ad Marginem, 2003. Fictionalized treatment of the sinking of the Kursk submarine.

_______, Политолог [The campaign manager], Moscow: Ad Marginem, 2005. Fictionalized treatment of Vladimir Putin’s relations with the opposition and the ‘oligarchs’.

_______, Последний солдат империи [The last soldier of the empire], Moscow: Ad Marginem, 2003. Revised and expanded version of a novel dealing with the unsuccessful 1991 coup against Mikhail Gorbachev; the revised version gives considerably more play to occult, supernatural, and conspiratorial themes. Earlier editions appeared under the title Последний солдат империи. Кремлевский апокалипсис [The last soldier of the empire. A Kremlin apocalypse].

_______, Теплоход «Иосиф Бродский» [A steamboat named Joseph Brodsky], Ekaterinburg: Ul’tra.Kul’tura, 2006. Novel looking ahead to the presidential elections of 2008.

_______, Третий тост. Повесть и рассказы [The third toast. Novella and short stories], Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 2003. Stories set in wartime Afghanistan. Includes the novella Охотник за караванами [The caravan hunter].

Rutskoi, Aleksandr: Кровавая осень. Дневник событий 21 сентября — 4 октября 1993 года [The bloody autumn. A journal of the events of 21 September to 4 October 1993], Moscow: no publisher listed, 1995. Account of the political crisis of autumn 1993, by one of the leaders of the defeated parliamentarians.

Sapronov, Petr: Власть как метафизическая и историческая реальность [Power as a metaphysical and historical reality], St Petersburg: Tserkov’ i kul’tura, 2001. Approach to politics in terms of theology and cultural history.

Savitskii, Petr: Континент Евразия [The continent of Eurasia], Moscow: Agraf, 1997. Works by the leading economist and geographer among the émigré Eurasian thinkers.

Silkan, Dmitrii (compiler): Равноденствия. Новая мистическая волна [Equinoxes. The new mystic wave], Moscow: ASTOL and Kyzyl: AST, 2004. Anthology of Borges-influenced short stories by writers including Natal’ia Makeeva and Nikolai Grigor’ev, with a foreword by Iurii Mamleev.

Troubetzkoy, Nicolas [Trubetskoi, Nikolai]: История. Культура. Язык [History. Culture. Language], Moscow: Progress-Univers, 1995. Collection of Troubetzkoy’s writings on various topics, including works from his period as an active Eurasian. Includes the proto-Eurasian manifesto Европа и человечество [Europe and humanity].

Unio mistica [sic]. Московский эзотерический сборник [Unio mystica. The Moscow esoteric collection], Moscow: Terra, 1997. Essays by Iurii Mamleev and others.

Ziuganov, Gennadii: Драма власти. Страницы политической автобиографии [The drama of power. Pages from a political autobiography], Moscow: Paleia, 1993. Personal manifesto by the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, when that party had only recently been legalized and re-established.

_______, Россия — родина моя. Идеология государственного патриотизма [Russia is my motherland. The ideology of state patriotism], Moscow: Informpechat’, 1996. The book in which Ziuganov expounds his vision of Russian patriotism. Includes some of the author’s earlier writings, among them his open letter to Aleksandr Iakovlev.


2. Academic studies:

Laqueur, Walter: Black Hundred. The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia, New York: HarperCollins, 1994. Account of early post-Soviet Russian nationalism.

Laruelle, Marlène: L’idéologie eurasiste russe ou comment penser l’empire [The Russian Eurasianist ideology, or how to think empire], Paris and Montreal: L’Harmattan, 1999. Study of Eurasianism, particularly the original émigré variety.

March, Luke: The Communist Party in post-Soviet Russia, Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. Study of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation from 1993 to 2001.

Mitrokhin, Nikolai: Русская партия. Движение русских националистов в СССР. 1953–1985 годы [The Russian Party. The movement of Russian nationalists in the USSR. 1953–1985], Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2003. Account of Russian nationalism in the Soviet Union from Stalin’s death to the beginning of perestroika.

Shekhovtsov, Anton, (2008), 'The Palingenetic Thrust of Russian Neo-Eurasianism: Ideas of Rebirth in Aleksandr Dugin's Worldview', Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 9/4: 491-506 (html version available here)

_______, (2009), 'Aleksandr Dugin's Neo-Eurasianism: The New Right à la Russe', Religion Compass 3/4: 697-716 (html version available here)

Shnirel’man, Viktor, Litsa nenavisti: Antisemity i rasisty na marshe (Moscow: Academia, 2005).

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