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Treacherous Foundations is the first sustained study of the theme of treachery in the founding myths of the Iberian Peninsula. It considers literary versions, in epic, chronicle and theatre, of the legends of Fernán González, Bernardo del Carpio and King Sancho II from medieval and early modern Spain and compares the representation of treachery across two critical periods in Spanish history, assessing its political, ideological, and cultural function.