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Ritchie Robertson, D.Phil. (M.A. Edinburgh), FBA
Emeritus Schwarz-Taylor Professor of the German Language and Literature, Fellow of The Queen's College


I continue to be interested in a wide range of authors and topics in German and comparative literature from about 1650 onwards. My monograph on German Political Tragedy is due out from Legenda in 2024. I am now writing a book on E.T.A. Hoffmann and plan further work on Romanticism.  I am convenor of the monograph series Germanic Literatures, published by Legenda. 

Graduate Teaching



Friedrich Nietzsche, Critical Lives (London: Reaktion, 2022)

The Enlightenment: The Pursuit of Happiness, 1680-1790 (London: Allen Lane and Penguin Books, 2020)

Enlightenment and Religion in German and Austrian Literature, Selected Essays (London: Legenda, 2017)

Goethe: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)

Editor, with Laurence Brockliss, Isaiah Berlin and the Enlightenment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)

Editor, with Michael White, Fontane and Cultural Mediation: Translation and Reception in the Nineteenth Century. Festschrift for Helen Chambers  (London: Legenda, 2015)

Editor, with Manfred Engel, Kafka und die Religion in der Moderne (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2014)

Editor, Lessing and the German Enlightenment (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2013)

(Translated with introduction and notes) Kafka, The Man who Disappeared (America), Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)

Mock-Epic Poetry from Pope to Heine (Oxford: OUP, 2009)

Editor, with Catriona Seth, Evariste de Parny: Le Paradis perdu, MHRA Critical Texts (London: Maney, 2009)

Editor, with Katrin Kohl, A History of Austrian Literature 1918-2000 (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2006)

Kafka: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP, 2004); translated into German, Chinese, and Japanese

Editor, The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Mann (Cambridge: CUP, 2002)

Editor and translator, The German-Jewish Dialogue: an anthology of literary texts, 1749-1993, World's Classics (Oxford: OUP, 1999)

The 'Jewish Question' in German Literature, 1749-1939 (Oxford: OUP, 1999)

Heine (London: Peter Halban, 1988).

Kafka: Judaism,. Politics, and Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985). German tr.: Kafka: Judentum, Politik, Literatur, tr. by Josef Billen (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1988)

Articles and chapters in books

'Aufklaerung und Romantik' in Anke Detken and Tom Kindt (eds.), Zauberberg-Handbuch (Stuttgart: Metzler), forthcoming

'Lohenstein's Sophonisbe: a vindication of the heroine', Nordic Journal of Renaissance Studies, 20 (2023), 165-79

'Bernhard's Frost and the philosophy of pessimism', in Katya Krylova and Ernest Schonfield (eds.), Thomas Bernhard: Langugae, History, Subjectivity, Amsterdamer Beitraege zur neueren Germanistik (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2023), pp. 96-105

'Humanism versus primitivism in the exile fiction of Arnold Zweig', in Margit Dirscherl, Arturo Larcati and Ritchie Robertson (eds.), Das Erbe von Humanismus und Aufklaerung in der Exilliteratur / The Heritage of Humanism and Enlightenment in Exile Literature (Wuerzburg: Koenigsjausen & Neumann, 2023), pp. 59-68

'Franz Kafka' in Uwe Schutte (ed.), W.G. Sebald in Context (Cambridge: CUP, 2023), pp. 168-75

'Epilogue: some problems in historical and literary periodization', in Lucian George and Jade McGlynn (eds.), Rethinking Period Boundaries (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2022), pp. 231-52

'Goethe's Faust II: the redemption of an enlightened despot', PEGS 91 (2022), i. 43-57

'Imperial Machiavel: the morality of Octavio in Schiller's Wallenstein', Germanistik in Ireland, 17 (2022), 63-74

'Aufklaerung und Gegenaufklaerung auf dem Zauberberg' (Vierte Thomas Mann Lecture der ETH Zurich am 4. November 2020), Thomas Mann Jahrbuch, 34 (2021), 211-24

'German studies at Oxford: past and future',  Oxford German Studies, 51 (2021),  398-405

' Calderón's European reception from Romanticism to the twentieth century', forthcoming in Roy Norton and Jonathan Thacker (eds.), A Companion to Calderón de la Barca (London: Tamesis, 2021), pp. 284-99

'Ariost aus Schweizer Sicht. Keller, Burckhardt, Meyer, Spitteler, Widmann', forthcoming in Achim Aurnhammer and Mario Zanucchi (eds.), Ariost in Deutschland (Berlin: de Gruyter)

'"Wir sind so klug und dennoch spukt's in Tegel": the Enlightenment and the paranormal',in KulturPoetik, 19 (2019), 29-44

'Alfred Döblin  as pacifist and chauvinist: Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lun and wartime propaganda’, in Andreas Kramer and Ritchie Robertson (eds.), Pacifist and Anti-Militarist Writing in German, 1892-1928: From Bertha von Suttner to Erich Maria Remarque (Munich: Iudicium, 2019), pp. 199-210

'Competition and democracy in Burckhardt and Nietzsche', in Herman Siemens and James Pearson (eds.), Conflict and Contest in Nietzsche's Philosophy (London: Bloomsbury, 2019), pp. 73-88

'Difficulties of a statesman: Johann Michael von Loen and Der redliche Mann am Hofe', Edinburgh German Yearbook, 2018, pp. 71-89

'The Enlightenment in new focus' (review article), Modern Intellectual History, 15 (2018), 349-63

'Style', in Carolin Duttlinger (ed.), Franz Kafka in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), pp. 62-9; 'Kafka's reading', ib., pp. 82-90

‘Suffering in art: Laocoon between Lessing and Goethe’, in Avi Lifschitz and Michael Squire (eds.), Re-thinking Lessing’s ‘Laocoon’ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), pp. 257-77

'Why don't school-leavers want to do Modern Languages degrees?' in Kurt Almqvist and Isabella Thomas (eds.), Sapere Aude: The Future of the Humanities in British Universities (Stockholm: Ax:son Johnson Foundation, 2017), pp. 89-98

'Machiavelli in Germany, 1678-1810', in Nicola Gardini and Martin McLaughlin (eds.), Machiavelli's 'Prince': Traditions, Texts and Translations (Rome: Viella, 2017), pp. 215-37

 ‘The reformation of Catholic festival culture in eighteenth-century Austria: a clash of mentalities’, Austrian Studies, 25 (2017), 25-41

'Everyday transcendence? Robert Musil, William James, and mysticism', History of European Ideas, 43 (2017), 183-92

'The rural Enlightenment of Johann Heinrich Voss', Publications of the English Goethe Society, 86 (2017), 183-92

‘Dreams as literature: Heine, Dora, Freud’, in Bernard Dieterle and Manfred Engel (eds.), Writing the Dream / Écrire le rêve (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2017 [actually 2016]), pp. 57-69

‘Berlin, Machiavelli and the Enlightenment’, in Laurence Brockliss and Ritchie Robertson (eds.), Isaiah Berlin and the Enlightenment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), pp. 137-50

‘Ancients, moderns, and the future: the Querelle in Germany from Winckelmann to Schiller’, in Paddy Bullard and Alexis Tadié (eds.), Ancients and Moderns in Europe: Comparative Perspectives (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2016), pp. 257-75

‘Felicitas Hoppe als letzte deutsche Weltreisende’, in Svenja Frank and Julia Ilgner (eds.), Ehrliche Erfindungen: Felicitas Hoppe zwischen Tradition und Transmoderne (Bielefeld: transcript, 2016), pp. 45-52

‘The Catholic Enlightenment: some reflections on recent research’, German History, 34 (2016), 630-45

Introduction and notes, Theodor Fontane, Effi Briest, tr. Mike Mitchell, Oxford World’s Classics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Humanität, Bildung, Kultur: Germany’s civilising values’, in Sarah Colvin (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of German Politics and Culture (London: Routledge, 2015), pp. 20-33

‘Nietzsche and the Scottish Enlightenment’, in Ritchie Robertson and Michael White (eds.), Fontane and Cultural Mediation: Translation and Reception in the Nineteenth Century (London: Legenda, 2015), pp. 120-33

‘”The past is a foreign country”: constructions of history in novels by Lion Feuchtwanger, Alfred Döblin and Arnold Zweig’, in Karin Neuburger (ed.), Recasting the ‘Other’: Readings in German-Jewish Interwar Culture (Yearbook of European Jewish Literature Studies, 2) (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2015), pp. 253-69

‘Modernist style and the “inward turn” in German-language fiction’, in Gregory Castle (ed.), A History of the Modernist Novel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 293-310

Weltliteratur from Voltaire to Goethe’, Comparative Critical Studies, 12 (2015), 163-81

‘Émancipation et ambivalence’ (on Heine), Europe: revue mensuelle littéraire, 93 (août-septembre 2015), 41-53

‘The rediscovery of Machiavelli in Napoleon’s Germany: Heinrich von Kleist and his contemporaries’, Ethics and Politics, 17 (2015), iii. 58-77

 ‘Johann Pezzl (1756-1823): Enlightenment in the satirical mode’, in Jeffrey D. Burson and Ulrich L. Lehner (eds), Enlightenment and Catholicism in Europe: A Transnational History (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2014), pp. 227-45

‘Children and childhood in Kafka’s work’, in Carolin Duttlinger (ed.), Kafkas ‘Betrachtung’: Neue Lektüren (Freiburg i.Br.: Rombach, 2014), pp. 179-99

‘Das Bild des Kindes bei Kafka im Lichte von Ellen Keys Das Jahrhundert des Kindes’, in Søren Fauth and Gísli Magnússon (eds), Influx: Der deutsch-skandinavische Kulturaustausch um 1900 (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2014), pp. 217-30

‘Kafka et le contexte historique: l'exemple de La Colonie pénitentiaire’, Cahier de l'Herne: Kafka 2014, ed. Jean-Pierre Morel and Wolfgang Asholt, pp. 35-41

Introduction and notes to Robert Musil, The Confusions of Young Törless, tr. Mike Mitchell, Oxford World’s Classics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)

‘Sex as sin or salvation: Max Brod’s Heidentum Christentum Judentum and Kafka’s Das Schloß’, in Manfred Engel and Ritchie Robertson (eds), Kafka und die Religion in der Moderne (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2014), pp. 119-34

‘”Le chemin de retour au pays de l’enfance”: Karl Kraus, la psychanalyse et l’ambivalence de l’enfance’, L’Europe, 91 (mai 2014), 91-103 

(With Alexander Kosenina) 'Lessing as journalist and controversialist', in Lessing and the German Enlightenment, ed. Ritchie Robertson (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2013), pp. 39-63

'Goethe and Machiavelli', in The Present Word. Culture, Society and the Site of Literature: Essays in Honour of Nicholas Boyle, ed. John Walker (London: Legenda, 2013), pp. 126-37

'On the Sublime and Schiller's theory of tragedy', in Philosophical Readings: Online Yearbook of Philosophy, 5 (2013), 194-212

'Raabe und Shakespeare. Zum Spiel mit Zitaten in Kloster Lugau, Die Akten des Vogelsangs und anderen Texten', Jahrbuch der Raabe-Gesellschaft, 2013, pp. 1-22

'Introduction', Wilhelm Raabe, The Birdsong Papers, tr. Michael Ritterson (London: MHRA, 2013), pp. vii-xvii

Introduction and notes to Kafka, A Hunger Artist and Other Stories, tr. by Joyce Crick, Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)

'"Das ist nun einmahl slawische Sitte!" Die Bewohner Galiziens in Reiseberichten und Statistiken des späten 18. Jahrhunderts', in Galizien im Diskurs: Inklusion, Exklusion, Repräsentation, ed. by Paula Giersch, Florian Krobb and Franziska Schößler (Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang, 2012), pp. 42-56

'Nietzsche in Glasgow: Alexander Tille, John Davidson and Edwin Muir', in Scotland and the 19th-Century World, ed. by Gerard Carruthers, David Goldie and Alastair Renfrew (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2012), pp. 213-30

'Childhood's end: the early poetry of Franz Werfel', Oxford German Studies, 41 (2012), 348-62

'Max Brod's novel Tycho Brahes Weg zu Gott: a tale of two astronomers', in Kafka, Prag und der Erste Weltkrieg, ed. by Manfred Engel and Ritchie Robertson (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2012), pp. 143-58

'Thomas Mann (1875-1955): Modernism and ideas', in The Cambridge Companion to the European Novel, ed. by Michael Bell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), pp. 343-60

'Polymorphous eroticism in the early plays of Hans Henny Jahnn', in Modernist Eroticisms, ed. by Anna Katharina Schaffner and Shane Weller (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 105-22

'Hoffmann's Die Elixiere des Teufels and the lasting appeal of conspiracy theories', Limbus: Australian Yearbook of German Literary and Cultural Studies, 5 (2012), 11-31

'Kafka's writings: private confessions or public property?', Bodleian Library Record, 25 (2012), ii. 84-93

'Freemasons vs Jesuits: conspiracy theories in Enlightenment Germany', Times Literary Supplement, 12 Oct. 2012, 13-15

'German literature and thought, 1810-1890', in The Oxford Companion to German History, ed. by Helmut Walser Smith (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 260-77

'Edwin Muir, Kafka, and German Modernism', in Scottish and International Modernisms, ed. by Emma Dymock and Margery Palmer McCulloch (Glasgow: Association for Scottish Literary Studies, 2011), pp. 20-33

'Wieland's nude bathers: visual pleasure and the female gaze', German Life and Letters, 64 (2011), 31-42

'Nestroy's Dickensian realism', Oxford Geman Studies, 40 (2011), 270-84

'Keller and Ariosto: the seductive imagination in Der grüne Heinrich', Publications of the English Goethe Society, 80 (2011), 127-42

'Myth versus enlightenment in Kafka's Das Schloss', Monatshefte, 103 (2011), 385-95

'W.G. Sebald as a critic of Austrian literature', Journal of European Studies, 41 (2011), 305-22

'Kafka, Goffman, and the total institution', in Kafka for the Twenty-First Century, ed. by Stanley Corngold and Ruth V. Gross (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2011), pp. 136-50

'From martyr to vampire: the figure of Mary Stuart in drama from Vondel to Swinburne', in Who is this Schiller now? Essays on his Reception and Significance, ed. by Jeffrey High, Nicholas Martin and Norbert Oellers (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2011), pp. 321-39

'Wielands Hexameron von Rosenhain und die Anfänge der deutschen Novellistik', in Kleine anthropologische Prosaformen der Goethezeit (1750-1830), ed. by Alexander Kosenina and Carsten Zelle (Hannover: Wehrhahn, 2011), pp. 30117

'Cosmopolitanism, patriotism and nationalism in the German and Austrian Enlightenment', in Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism, ed. by David Adams and Galin Tihanov (London: Legenda, 2011), pp. 12-30

'"Ich" and "wir": singular and collective narrators in Kafka's short prose', in Kafka und die kleine Prosa der Moderne, ed. by Manfred Engel and Ritchie Robertson (Würzburg: Königshausen + Neumann, 2010 [actually 2011], pp. 67-77

'Jesuits, Jews, and Thugs: myths of conspiracy and infiltration from Dickens to Thomas Mann', in In the Embrace of the Swan: Anglo-German Mythologies in Literature, the Visual Arts and Cultural Theory, ed. by Rüdiger Görner and Angus Nicholls (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2010), pp. 126-46

‘Aufklärung, Kulturkampf und Antiklerikalismus als Themen der österreichischen Literaturgeschichte’, in Kanon und Literaturgeschichte: Beiträge zu den Jahrestagungen 2005 und 2006 der ehemaligen Werfel-StipendiatInnen, ed. by Arnulf Knafl (Vienna: Praesens, 2010), pp. 187-201 

‘Der patriotische Minister in Grillparzers Ein treuer Diener seines Herrn und Hebbels Agnes Bernauer’, Hebbel-Jahrbuch 2010, pp. 95-119

Introductions and notes to Kafka, The Metamorphosis and Other Stories, tr. by Joyce Crick; The Trial, tr. by Michael Mitchell; The Castle, tr. by Anthea Bell, World’s Classics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)

'Women warriors and the origin of the state: Werner's Wanda and Kleist's Penthesilea', in Women and Death: Warlike Women in the German Cultural Imagination, ed. Sarah Colvin and Helen Watanabe-O'Kelly (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2009), 61-85

'Alfred Döblin's feeling for snow: the poetry of fact in Berge Meere und Giganten', in Alfred Döblin: Paradigms of Modernism, ed. Steffan Davies and Ernest Schonfield (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2009), 217-230

'Curiosity in the Austrian Enlightenment', Oxford German Studies, 38 (2009), 129-142

'Affinités épiques et libération sexuelle dans La Pucelle de Voltaire', Revue Voltaire, 9 (2009), 29-44

'Virtue versus 'Schwärmerei' in Lessing's Emilia Galotti', German Life and Letters, 62 (2009), 39-52

'Recent work on Nietzsche’ (review-article), Nineteenth-Century Prose, 36 (2009), 211-32

'Der Götterkrieg: Ein episches Motiv von Milton bis Heine', in Harry ... Heinrich ... Henri Heine, ed. Dietmar Goltschnigg et al. (Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 2008), 131-140

‘Canetti and violence’, in The Worlds of Elias Canetti, ed. by Julian Preece and William C. Donahue (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008), pp. 11-24

'Robert Hamerling and the survival of epic', Austrian Studies, 16 (2008), 142-153

'Mörike and the Higher Criticism', Oxford German Studies, 36 (2007), 47-59

'The complexities of Caroline Pichler: conflicting role models, patriotic commitment, and The Swedes in Prague [Die Schweden in Prag, 1827]', Women in German Yearbook, 23 (2007), 34-48

'Puritans into revolutionaries: Butler's Hudibras and Ratschky's Melchior Striegel', Austrian Studies, 15 (2007), 17-40

'Canetti, Freud, Lorenz, et le problème de la violence', Austriaca, 61 (2007), 67-77

'Freud's literary imagination', in The Academic Face of Psychoanalysis, ed. Louise Braddock and Michael Lacewing (London: Routledge, 2007), 196-207

'Goethe: Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre', in Landmarks in the German Novel, ed. Peter Hutchinson (Bern: Peter Lang, 2007), 31-48

'Wallenstein', in Friedrich Schiller: Playwright, Poet, Philosopher, Historian, ed. Paul Kerry (Bern: Peter Lang, 2007), 196-207

'Schiller and the Jesuits', in Schiller: National Poet, Poet of Nations, ed. Nicholas Martin (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006), 179-200

'Austrian prose fiction, 1918-1945', in A History of Austrian Literature 1918-2000, ed. Katrin Kohl and Ritchie Robertson (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2006), 53-74

'Poetry, power, and Peter Huchel', in In Time of Need, ed. Mireille Gansel and Reiner Kunze (London: Libris, 2006), 63-90

'Polemical and judicial violence in the Austrian Enlightenment', in Violence, Culture and Identity, ed. Helen Chambers (Bern: Peter Lang, 2006), 86-99

'Narrative and violence in George Saiko's Der Mann im Schilf (1955) and Hans Lebert's Die Wolfshaut (1960)', in Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt, ed. Dirk Göttsche et al. (Göttingen: V & R unipress, 2006), 131-143

'Kafka und die skandinavische Moderne', in Franz Kafka und die Weltliteratur, ed. Manfred Engel and Dieter Lamping (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006), 144-65

'Sacrifice and sacrament in Der Zauberberg', Oxford German Studies, 35 (2006), 55-65

"Der ungeheure Strindberg": Zu Kafkas Strindberg-Rezeption', in Erfahrung der Fremde, ed. Christoph Parry (Vaasa: Vaasan Yliopisto, 2005), 85-99

'George, Nietzsche, and Nazism', in A Companion to the Works of Stefan George, ed. Jens Rieckmann (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2005), 189-205

'The limits of metaphor in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals', Nineteenth-Century Prose, 32 (2005), 75-96

'Savonarola in Munich: a reappraisal of Thomas Mann's Fiorenza', Publications of the English Goethe Society, 74 (2005), 51-66

'Kafka's encounter with the Yiddish theatre', in The Yiddish Presence in European Literature, ed. Joseph Sherman and Ritchie Robertson, Studies in Yiddish (Oxford: Legenda, 2005), 34-44

'Joseph II in cultural memory’, in David Midgley and Christian Emden (eds), Cultural Memory and Historical Consciousness in the German-Speaking World since 1500 (Bern: Peter Lang, 2004), pp. 209-28

'Canetti and Nietzsche: an introduction to Masse und Macht', in A Companion to the Works of Elias Canetti, ed. Dagmar C.G. Lorenz (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2004), 201-216

'Gender anxiety and the shaping of the self in some modernist writers: Musil, Hesse, Hofmannsthal, Jahnn', in The Cambridge Companion to the Modern German Novel, ed. Graham Bartram (Cambridge: CUP, 2004), 46-61

'Theodor Herzl et l'antisémitisme', Austriaca, 57 (2004), 61-71

'Poetry and scepticism in the wake of the Austrian Enlightenment: Blumauer, Grillparzer, Lenau', Austrian Studies, 12 (2004), 17-43 

'The creative dialogue between Brod and Kafka', in Kafka, Zionism, and Beyond, ed. Mark H. Gelber, Conditio Judaica (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2004), 283-96

‘Eichendorff: Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts’, in Peter Hutchinson (ed.), Landmarks in German Short Fiction (Berne: Peter Lang, 2003), pp. 45-60

‘Antisemitismus und Ambivalenz: Zu Achim von Arnims Erzählung Die Majoratsherren’, in Sheila Dickson and Walter Pape (eds), Romantische Identitätskonstruktionen: Nation, Geschichte und (Auto)-Biographie (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2003), pp. 51-63

'Modernism and the self, 1890-1924', in: Philosophy and German Literature, 1700-1990, ed. Nicholas Saul (Cambridge: CUP, 2002), 150-96

'Kafka als religiöser Denker’, in Franz Kafka: Zur ethischen und ästhetischen Rechtfertigung, ed. by Jakob Lothe and Beatrice Sandberg (Freiburg: Rombach, 2002), pp. 135-49

‘An appreciation of the work of Siegbert Prawer, J.P. Stern and George Steiner’, in German Literature, Jewish Critics: The Brandeis Symposium, ed. by Stephen D. Dowden and Meike G. Werner (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2002), pp. 237-61

‘Häusliche Gewalt in der Wiener Moderne. Zu Veza Canettis Erzählung “Der Oger”’, Text + Kritik, no. 156 (Oct. 2002), 48-64 

‘Britische Intellektuelle und Dichter über die Revolutionen in Österreich und Ungarn 1848-1849', in Bewegung im Reich der Immobilität: Revolutionen in der Habsburgermonarchie 1848-49, ed. by Hubert Lengauer and Primus-Heinz Kucher (Vienna: Böhlau, 2001), pp. 415-26 

‘Literary techniques and aesthetic texture in Faust’, in Goethe’s Faust I and II: A Companion, ed. by Paul Bishop (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2001), pp. 1-27 

‘Karl Beck: from radicalism to monarchism’, Leo Baeck Institute Year Book, 46 (2001), 81-91 

‘Schopenhauer, Heine, Freud: dreams and dream-theories in nineteenth-century Germany’, Psychoanalysis and History, 3 (2001), 28-38 

‘Faith and fossils: Annette von Droste-Hülshoff’s poem “Die Mergelgrube”’, in Das schwierige 19. Jahrhundert: Germanistische Tagung zum 65. Geburtstag von Eda Sagarra im August 1998, ed. by Jürgen Barkhoff, Gilbert J. Carr and Roger Paulin (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2000), pp. 345-54

‘Zum deutschen Slawenbild von Herder bis Musil’, in Das Eigene und das Fremde: Festschrift Urs Bitterli, ed. by Urs Faes and Béatrice Ziegler (Zürich: NZZ-Verlag, 2000), pp. 116-44 

‘”A world of fine fabling”: epic traditions in Heine’s Atta Troll’, in Heine und die Weltliteratur, ed. by Alexander Stillmark and T.J. Reed (Oxford: Legenda, 2000), pp. 64-76

‘Rafael Seligmann’s Rubinsteins Versteigerung: the German-Jewish family novel before and after the Holocaust’, Germanic Review, 75 (2000), 179-93

‘Enlightened and Romantic views of the ghetto: David Friedländer vs. Heinrich Heine’, in Ghetto Writing: Traditional and Eastern Jewry in German-Jewish Prose, ed. by Anne Fuchs and Florian Krobb (Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1999), pp. 25-40 

‘Varieties of antisemitism from Herder to Fassbinder’, in The German-Jewish Dilemma: From the Enlightenment to the Holocaust, ed. by Andrea Hammel and Edward Timms (Lampeter: Mellen, 1999), pp. 107-21 

‘The representation of Jews in British and German literature: a comparison’, in Two Nations: British and German Jews in Comparative Perspective, ed. by Michael Brenner, Rainer Liedtke and David Rechter (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1999), pp. 411-41 

‘The New Ghetto and the perplexities of assimilation’, in Theodor Herzl: Visionary of the Jewish State, ed. by Gideon Shimoni and Robert Wistrich (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1999), pp. 39-51 

‘Historicizing Weininger: the nineteenth-century German image of the feminized Jew’, in Modernity, Culture and ‘the Jew’, ed. by Bryan Cheyette and Laura Marcus (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998), pp. 23-39 

‘Die Erneuerung des Judentums aus dem Geist der Assimilation, 1900 bis 1922', in Ästhetische und religiöse Erfahrungen der Jahrhundertwenden, II: Um 1900, ed. by Wolfgang Braungart, Gotthard Fuchs and Manfred Koch (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1998), pp. 171-93 

‘Heroes in their underclothes: Aloys Blumauer’s travesty of Virgil’s Aeneid’, Austrian Studies, 9 (1998), 24-40 

‘”Dies hohe Lied der Duldung”? The ambiguities of toleration in Lessing’s Die Juden and Nathan der Weise’, Modern Language Review, 93 (1998), 105-20 

‘Freedom and pragmatism: aspects of religious toleration in eighteenth-century Germany’, Patterns of Prejudice, 32 (1998), iii. 69-80 

‘Kafka und das Christentum’, Der Deutschunterricht, 50 (1998), v. 60-9 

‘From Naturalism to National Socialism (1890-1945)’, in The Cambridge History of German Literature, ed. by Helen Watanabe-O’Kelly (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 327-92 

‘1918 ... Joseph Roth’, in The Yale Companion to Jewish Writing and Thought in German Culture, 1096-1996, ed. by Sander Gilman and Jack Zipes (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997), pp. 355-62 

‘Reinventing the Jews: from Moses Mendelssohn to Theodor Herzl’, Austrian Studies, 8 (1997), 3-11 

‘Mothers and lovers in some novels by Kafka and Brod’, German Life and Letters, 50 (1997), 475-90 

‘German idealists and American rowdies: Ferdinand Kürnberger’s novel Der Amerika-Müde’, Austrian Studies, 7 (1996), 17-35 

‘”Urheimat Asien”: the re-orientation of German and Austrian Jews, 1900-1925', German Life and Letters, 49 (1996), 182-92 

‘The failure of Enlightenment in Grillparzer’s Ein Bruderzwist in Habsburg and Goethe’s Die natürliche Tochter’, in Für all, was Menschen je erfahren ... Beiträge zu Franz Grillparzers Werk, ed. by in Joseph P. Strelka (Bern: Lang, 1995), pp. 165-85 

‘Schnitzler’s honesty’, in Order from Confusion: Essays presented to Edward McInnes on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, ed. by Alan Deighton (Hull: New German Studies, 1995), pp. 162-85 

‘Heinrich Heine: Der Doktor Faust. Ein Tanzpoem’, in Faust: Annäherung an einen Mythos, ed. by Frank Möbus et al. (Göttingen: Wallstein, 1995), pp. 113-14 

Der Proceß’, in Interpretationen: Franz Kafka, Romane und Erzählungen, ed. by Michael Müller (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1994), pp. 98-145 

‘”Herr Peregrinus”: persona, race and gender in Heinrich Heine’s Die Harzreise’, in Bridging the Abyss: reflections on Jewish suffering, anti-Semitism, and exile: essays in honor of Harry Zohn, ed. by Amy Colin and Elisabeth Strenger (Munich: Fink, 1994), pp. 145-57 

‘Der Künstler und das Volk. Kafkas “Ein Hungerkünstler. Vier Geschichten”’, tr. Christa Krüger, Text + Kritik, Sonderband (1994), 180-91 

‘In search of the historical Kafka: a selective review of research, 1980-92', Modern Language Review, 89 (1994), 107-37 

‘Difficult truths: an essay review of J.P. Stern, The Heart of Europe’, Comparative Criticism, 16 (1994), 247-61 

‘Reading the clues: Franz Kafka, Der Proceß’, in The German Novel in the Twentieth Century, ed. by David Midgley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993), pp. 59-79 

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